20. One of many prehistoric Gold Lunulas.
One day in Ireland, many years ago, a man or woman sat down and drew the moon on a sheet of pure gold. He or she, started by hard-boiling an egg, believe it or not, which they carefully cut in half using a sharp piece of flint.
Laying one half of that egg down, they scored around its profile to obtain the moon-shape they wished to produce.
They did indeed produce a thing of great beauty, but they wanted still more.
For their artistic eye told them to throw two more radii, not just from the profile of the shell, but from the yolk as well. In so doing, not only did that person perfect their lunular of gold, but expressed a wish to tap into life itself.
From the out of print 2010 booklet "The real Woodhenge" ISBN 978-0-9553012-8-5 by yours truly.
21. This is a model of what Stonehenge MK2 was probably meant to look like, and it should help us to find our way around - even though Stonehenge was probably never finished. That it was probably never finished, is something that we will deal with later. Stonehenge MK1, as the hypothesis predicts, was built alongside the river Avon. Stonehenge MK1 has been called the West Amesbury henge, or Bluestonehenge. Thus the need for the Stonehenge Avenue.
We know from our studies of the Arminghall Henge, exactly how Stone Age people aligned things. Above we see how they determined Stonehenge's primary axis. We do not know what if anything stood in the Aubrey holes, be it timber posts or bluestones. But it surely had to be one or the other.
Let's assume that one-megalithic-yard diameter timber posts were used.
We explained from the start that the axis of Stonehenge was arranged to aim 50-degrees from north so as to miss the prehistoric solstice by one-degree.
From the above, we can see that the Aubrey Holes determined the primary axis of Stonehenge perhaps as long ago as 2,900BC. This axis passes to the right of post 28 and to the left of Post 56, crossing over the same as at Arminghall. If carried far enough this 50-degree axis passes over the southern slope of Sidbury Hill. The fact that Sidbury Hill is out of sight of Stonehenge would not have mattered. Tracing alignments over land for some eight miles, was nothing to them!
Most importantly, the 50-degree axis can be seen to not pass through the gap of the great trilithon, and never did That was the job of the secondary axis! (more on this later).
The absolute maximum position of the moon was set in a similar way to the axis by posts 28 and 53. This alignment passes tangentially to the newly-discovered Larkhill Causewayed Enclosure. The blue-shaded area shows how the Aubrey Holes, starting from Post 54, spanned the Larkhill enclosure and its (known) posts, to keep watch of the moon as she approached her northernmost position.
The Stonehenge Avenue.
This was an avenue that amongst other things, hoped something would grow bigger in size. Built by Britain’s earliest farmers, we know exactly what that something was. It was STONEHENGE MK2.
The image on the left gives an overall picture of the Avenue from end to end. It obeys the 10-degree rule set out at Arminghall by starting at 20-degrees and becoming twice-sized (40) where it enters Stonehenge MK 2.
The image on the right zooms in on the Avenue's large curvature to show its three arcs to increase in size the further along it travels.
We also see how the smallest arc of 375 megalithic yards covers a 25-degree angle. We see this sub-division into 5's at Avebury's Beckhampton Cove and Avenue.
It's also interesting to note that the 375 and 750 radii are straight lifts from Avebury's geometry.
The 660 arc shows once again a prehistoric liking for the number 6. This is a further reason to believe that the 6-megalithic-yard Altar Stone never did stand upright.
22. The surveyor, John Wood Senior, famous for having designed the Crescent and Circus in the City of Bath, was the first to make a proper survey of Stonehenge. A CAD version (Computer Aided Design) of John’s survey, after converting his feet and inch measurements into megalithic yards, is shown above.
This ground-plan has been criticised for working to six decimal places. However, those figures were produced on a modern calculator, and reducing them down to please the awkward, whilst still maintaining accuracy, would require extra work more trouble than it’s worth.
John Wood senior, used Stonehenge to train his apprentice son, John Wood junior, in the art of surveying. Requiring over 800 measurements, the Wood’s 1740 survey has never been bettered.
Their survey is especially important for having been produced before Trilithon 4 fell to the ground.
23. The first step in setting out the ground-plan of Stonehenge was to draw a 36-megalithic-yard-diameter circle (98 feet, 29.88 metres) with a line through the centre at an angle of 50-degrees clockwise from north. This line represents the primary axis. Also, this line very nearly points to the northernmost rising of the sun, known as the summer solstice, and is where revellers stand every June 21st. The summer solstice occurs every year around this time and it’s a kind of terminus where the sun rests a while before making its weary way back to its southern terminus, known as the winter solstice.
24. We should explain that the stones were numbered by the Egyptologist, Flinders Petrie, in 1880, and his numbering system is what we use today. Also, we have Anthony Johnson to thank for coming up with the basic geometry on which the trilithon's are based. “Solving Stonehenge: The New Key To An Ancient Enigma.” Johnson A. Thames and Hudson, London, 2008.
Johnson's method of determining the position of the inner face of Trilithon 1 is shown above. However, whilst Johnson, in his book, bases the trilithons around the axis of the sarsen circle as is seen above, we now know that trilithon's 3, 4 and (possibly) 5 are based on a totally separate axis.
To be found in "Chalkland, an archaeology of Stonehenge and its region" by Andrew Lawson 2007" Stonehenge was constructed symmetrically around a principle axial line which passed through the tallest trilithon, the bluestone settings and the outer sarsen circle. Sorry Andrew but the primary axis does not pass through the great trilithon, or the bluestone oval, so you are wrong.
25.This is how Johnson determined the position of the inner faces of stones 53 and 54 of Trilithon 2.
With the positions of trilithon's 1 and 2 known, we now have to fix the positions of 3, 4 and 5. As already pointed out, these three trilithon’s are set on a separate axis, so we first need to determine the distance between these two axes by making folded tracings, or mirror imaging in CAD, of Stonehenge's ground plan.
26. Starting by proving Stonehenge’s primary axis, we will superimpose one of its many ground-plans on top of a CAD version of where the 30 stone pillars of the outer circle ought to be.
Any one of several ground-plans will do - that made in 1989 by I forget who, Wood’s 1740, Professor Gowland's plan of 1901, when Gowland knew that the (primary) axis did not pass centrally through the gap of the great trilithon. Finally the modern digital. I've chosen Petrie's 1880 version for this task, when we can see straight off that Stone 1 is misplaced slightly clockwise - no doubt with the intention of capturing as much incoming sunlight as possible.
While on the subject of Petrie's measurements, there's this mistake made by Professor John North regarding the circle on which the one-time bluestone horseshoe was set...
"Quoting the radius of Petrie's circle in Thom's Megalithic Yards, something Petrie could not of course do, it is 7.01 MY." Stonehenge: Neolithic Man and the Cosmos, John North 1996 page 431.
But from Stonehenge: Plans, Description, and theories. by W. M. Flinders Petrie: "Taking up now the sarsens and inner bluestones, the inner bluestones are 472.7 inches diameter."
Well, 472.7 imperial inches equals 14.5 megalithic yards, Not the 14 MY (twice 7) calculated by Professor John North.
So, Petrie's 14.5 MY circle is now placed on the plan view above. It's equally important to note that Petrie measured the bluestone horseshoe from the inside faces of the stones.
We now make a tracing of the above ground-plan-view and fold it double about our new-found primary axis. Before folding, and to make things clearer, we have coloured Petrie's stones to the northwest of the primary axis red, and those to the southeast, yellow. The next diagram shows the result of the folding.
1. This folding shows the Great trilithon to be offset from the Primary axis by about 0.6 Megalithic Yards.
2. Pillar 57 of Trilithon 4 is offset by 0.9 MY
3. Pillar 58 is offset 0.6 MY,
4. Pillar 60 of Trilithon 5 is not offset here, but a folding of Wood’s ground-plan shows an offset of 0.3MY.
5. Bluestone Oval southwest, (previously known as the 'Horseshoe') is offset by 0.45 MY, (0.9 MY halved)
6. Altar Stone offset is 0.5 MY (1.0 MY halved)
28. Stonehenge 2,500 BC. It's convenient at this point to image the outer circle as if it stood alone, to demonstrate that solstice sunlight could pass right through and out the back. This problem was addressed by having a separate axis on which Stone 55 and bluestone 67 could be placed to block it.
29. We are now able to draw the secondary axis on which trilithon’s 3, 4 and 5 stand. And; because the geometry of the bluestone oval is also cast from this secondary axis, we add this too.
First notice a likely 30-megalithic-inch difference between the centre of the outer circle and the centre of the horseshoe - actually the southwestern part of an oval - of 19 bluestones.
If we assume this 30 MI centre-distance to be correct, and it very likely is, we can say that the two axes are 18 megalithic inches apart; and that Stonehenge was based on a tiny 18:24:30, six-times-size 3:4:5, Pythagorean triangle. Remember Avebury and its Sanctuary?
It’s also interesting to note that 18 is Stonehenge’s internal radius, 30 the number of stones of the outer circle, and 24 the number of bluestones that once formed the Oval.
Note also how stones 55 and 56 of the Great Trilithon are spaced three megalithic yards apart, 1.5 MY either side of the secondary axis.
We could also say that the Bluestone Oval, being made up of a pair of 14.5 MY circles, represents, along with the 30 stones of the outer circle, the 29½ day lunar month - the very number John Wood had hoped to find. Also, their centres are spread apart by the Stonehenger's most important number, the number three.
30. Again, using Johnson’s method but working to the secondary axis, we mark out the position of the inner faces of stones 57 and 58 of Trilithon 4.
31. Once again using Johnson’s method but working to the secondary axis, we plot the positions of the inner faces of stones 59 and 60 of Trilithon 5.
32. Putting it all together and setting it against the modern digital - the cheek of the man!
The result of all this work proves several things. Stone 56 of the Great trilithon, which was returned to the vertical and securely set in concrete by Col Gowland in 1901, is now about six imperial inches forward of its ideal position.
Stone 16 is placed too close to what would become its neighbour 17, and is on the wrong axis, anyway. However, this could be the builders way of allowing winter solstice sunlight to fall on the flattened rear of the Great trilithon. But 16 still upsets the geometry!
The folding proves Stone 10 of the outer circle to be set too far in. This stone caused Petrie to measure Stonehenge's founding circle slightly undersized at 35.75 MY instead of the correct 36.
Whilst in the right place, undersized Stone 11 must be some kind of joke.
I have come to believe that Stonehenge’s geometry was far too complicated for those who were charged to build it. And with so many mistakes, the likelihood is that Stonehenge was abandoned unfinished.
The hypothesis of Stonehenge, which I have already proved on a separate website to this, required it to be built alongside the river Avon. And it was. Archaeologists found the MK1 version in 2008/9 as a circle of bluestones at the start of - some incorrectly say the end - of the Stonehenge Avenue.
The problem with the so-called West Amesbury henge, was its lack of astronomical alignments. So its stones were plucked out of the ground to become part of Stonehenge MK2 on top of a hill. A connection to the river still had to made to satisfy the hypothesis, thus the need for the Stonehenge Avenue.
This is what Stukeley wrote of the trilithons...
"An oval formed as this is, upon two centres coinciding with each others circumference; or, which is the same thing, whose centres are distant from each other the length of their radius, is most natural and most beautiful, being the shape of an egg.!
Stonehenge: A temple restored to the British Druids. William Stukeley 1740.
Now who would want to build a stone egg and hide it inside a circle? Durrington Walls' Southern Circle of eggs are not inside a circle, nor are the eggs of Woodhenge. So the answer is: no-one.
Stonehenge and its 1,000 associated stone circles were follies built in a search for something never to be found. Being dismantled and rebuilt many times over many years, Stonehenge was a product of procrastination by a people who could not make their mind up. They were, after all, attempting the impossible.
And getting back to why some would not want to hide the trilithon egg inside a circle was perhaps someone else's agender? To them Stonehenge WAS finished!
Some agreed to this idea and some were against it. Those who didn't agree took matters into their own hands and brought Stonehenge to a halt by placing Stone 10 in the wrong position and a half-size stone in position 11.
What were people trying to do by building Stonehenge.
They tried to bring the sun, moon and a star, or stars, together in one place.
Why would they want to bring the sun, moon and stars together at Stonehenge?
Believing the moon female and the sun male, they wanted the sun to make her pregnant.
Why did they want to make the moon pregnant?
Early farmers in Britain wanted a second sun to keep them warm and also to produce their crops the whole year round. Built to collect, reflect and amplify sunlight, as does a modern day Laser, Stonehenge was to be that baby sun.
Want more proof? Please press the Woodhenge button.